Team:Fatih Turkey/LALF

From 2011.igem.org

(Difference between revisions)
(Created page with "LALF")
Line 1: Line 1:
-
LALF
+
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
 +
<head>
 +
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
 +
<title>deneme baslik</title>
 +
<style>
 +
h1.firstHeading, div#p-logo, div#search-controls, div#contentSub, div#footer-box, div#catlinks{
 +
  display:none;
 +
}
 +
#menubar{
 +
background-color: transparent;
 +
font-size: 85%;
 +
top: 10px;
 +
position: absolute;
 +
margin-top: -12px;
 +
}
 +
 
 +
div#content{
 +
padding: 0 !important;
 +
background: transparent;
 +
border: none !important;
 +
width: auto;
 +
}
 +
 
 +
#menubar li a {
 +
color: #FFFFFF;
 +
background-color: transparent;
 +
}
 +
#globalWrapper{
 +
margin-top:5px;
 +
}
 +
#top-section{
 +
height: 20px !important;
 +
border: none !important;
 +
}
 +
body {
 +
font-size: 12px;
 +
font-family: Verdana, Arial, SunSans-Regular, Sans-Serif;
 +
color: #444;
 +
background: #6b6b6b url('http://igem.org/wiki/images/a/ad/Bg-igem.png');
 +
}
 +
body,p,pre,div,span{
 +
line-height: 160%;
 +
color: #808080;
 +
}
 +
html, body, div, span, object, iframe, h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6, blockquote, pre, a, abbr, acronym, address,
 +
code, del, dfn, em, img, q, dl, dt, dd, ol, ul, li, fieldset, form, label, legend, table, caption, tbody, tfoot, thead, tr, th, td
 +
{
 +
margin:0;
 +
padding:0;
 +
border:0;
 +
font-weight:inherit;
 +
font-style:inherit;
 +
font-family:inherit;
 +
vertical-align:baseline;
 +
}
 +
 
 +
em{
 +
font-style:italic;
 +
}
 +
table{
 +
margin-top: 15px;
 +
margin-bottom: 15px;
 +
}
 +
hr{
 +
border: 0;
 +
color: #eee;
 +
background-color: #eee;
 +
height: 1px;
 +
margin-bottom: 20px;
 +
}
 +
img.centered {
 +
display: block;
 +
margin-left: auto;
 +
margin-right: auto;
 +
}
 +
img.alignnone {
 +
margin: 0px 0px 5px 5px;
 +
display: inline;
 +
}
 +
img.alignright {
 +
margin: 0px 0px 5px 10px;
 +
display: inline;
 +
}
 +
 
 +
img.alignleft {
 +
margin: 0px 10px 5px 0px;
 +
display: inline;
 +
}
 +
.alignright {
 +
float: right;
 +
}
 +
 
 +
.alignleft {
 +
float: left;
 +
}
 +
.aligncenter{
 +
margin-left: auto;
 +
margin-right: auto;
 +
}
 +
h1,h2,h3,h4,h5,h6{
 +
  margin-top: 15px;
 +
  margin-bottom: 15px ;
 +
  color: #333;
 +
  line-height: 1.5em;
 +
}
 +
h1 {
 +
font-size: 30px;
 +
}
 +
h2 {
 +
font-size: 25px;
 +
}
 +
h3 {
 +
font-size: 20px;
 +
}
 +
h4 {
 +
font-size: 18px;
 +
}
 +
h5 {
 +
font-size: 16px;
 +
}
 +
 
 +
h6 {
 +
font-size: 15px;
 +
}
 +
a{
 +
text-decoration: none;
 +
}
 +
a{
 +
color: #2f86c4;
 +
}
 +
a:hover{
 +
color: #4172ab;
 +
}
 +
#header .logo{
 +
margin-top: 41px;
 +
margin-left: 40px;
 +
}
 +
#footer{
 +
background: #707070;
 +
border-left: 1px #888 solid;
 +
border-right: 1px #888 solid;
 +
width: 988px;
 +
margin: 0px auto 0px;
 +
overflow: hidden;
 +
}
 +
#footer div{
 +
color: #bbb;
 +
}
 +
#footer a{
 +
color: #c4c5cc;
 +
text-decoration: none;
 +
}
 +
#footer a:hover{
 +
color: #666;
 +
}
 +
 
 +
.footer-sh-wrapper {
 +
    height: 22px;
 +
    margin: auto;
 +
    position: relative;
 +
    width: 990px;
 +
}
 +
.footer-sh-left {
 +
    background: url("http://2011.igem.org/wiki/images/b/b7/Footer-sh-left.png") no-repeat scroll 0 0 transparent;
 +
    height: 112px;
 +
    left: 0;
 +
    position: absolute;
 +
    top: -90px;
 +
    width: 10px;
 +
}
 +
.footer-sh {
 +
    background: url("http://2011.igem.org/wiki/images/b/bf/Footer-sh.png") repeat-x scroll center bottom #F9F9F9;
 +
    bottom: 0;
 +
    height: 22px;
 +
    left: 10px;
 +
    position: absolute;
 +
    width: 970px;
 +
}
 +
.footer-sh-right {
 +
    background: url("http://2011.igem.org/wiki/images/b/b5/Footer-sh-right.png") no-repeat scroll 0 0 transparent;
 +
    height: 112px;
 +
    position: absolute;
 +
    right: 0;
 +
    top: -90px;
 +
    width: 10px;
 +
}
 +
 
 +
.copyright-open{
 +
width: 988px;
 +
height: 0px;
 +
margin:auto;
 +
display: block-inline;
 +
}
 +
h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6{
 +
color: #333333;
 +
}
 +
#header-whole{
 +
 
 +
position: relative;
 +
z-index: 200;
 +
width: 980px;
 +
margin: 0 auto;
 +
}
 +
#header{
 +
height: 100px;
 +
clear: both;
 +
background: #f9f9f9;
 +
margin: 0 auto;
 +
    width: 970px;
 +
}
 +
#header .logo{
 +
float: left;
 +
margin-top: 25px;
 +
margin-left: 20px;
 +
}
 +
 
 +
#container{
 +
width: 970px;
 +
margin: 0px auto 0px;
 +
background: none repeat scroll 0 0 #F9F9F9;
 +
}
 +
.copyright-open{
 +
border-top: 1px #a8a8a8 solid;
 +
border-bottom: 1px #888 solid;
 +
border-left: 1px #888 solid;
 +
border-right: 1px #888 solid;
 +
}
 +
.nav-wrapper{
 +
margin: 0px 30px 0px 0px;
 +
float:right;
 +
}
 +
.ddsmoothmenu ul{
 +
padding: 0px;
 +
list-style-type: none;
 +
background: #666666;
 +
}
 +
.ddsmoothmenu ul li{
 +
position: relative;
 +
display: block;
 +
float: left;
 +
}
 +
.ddsmoothmenu ul li a{
 +
line-height: 140%;
 +
overflow: hidden;
 +
text-align: left;
 +
font-family: 'Lucida Grande', Arial, Verdana, sans-serif;
 +
word-spacing: 1px;
 +
font-size: 14px;
 +
font-weight: normal;
 +
display: block; /*background of menu items (default state)*/
 +
padding: 34px 27px 10px 17px;
 +
text-decoration: none;
 +
}
 +
.ddsmoothmenu ul li a span {
 +
font-weight: normal;
 +
color: #888;
 +
font-size: 10px;
 +
clear: both;
 +
display:block;
 +
width: 60px;
 +
}
 +
* html .ddsmoothmenu ul li a{ /*IE6 hack to get sub menu links to behave correctly*/
 +
display: inline-block;
 +
}
 +
 
 +
.ddsmoothmenu ul li a:link, .ddsmoothmenu ul li a:visited{
 +
color: #333;
 +
}
 +
 
 +
.ddsmoothmenu ul li a.selected{ /*CSS class that's dynamically added to the currently active menu items' LI A element*/
 +
color: #888;
 +
}
 +
 
 +
.ddsmoothmenu ul li a:hover{
 +
color: #888;
 +
}
 +
 +
/*1st sub level menu*/
 +
.ddsmoothmenu ul li ul{
 +
position: absolute;
 +
left: 0;
 +
visibility: hidden;
 +
display: none; /*collapse all sub menus to begin with*/
 +
border: 1px #222 solid;
 +
-webkit-box-shadow: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.2) 0px 0px 2px 1px;
 +
-moz-box-shadow: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.2) 0px 0px 2px 1px;
 +
box-shadow: rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.2) 0px 0px 2px 1px;
 +
}
 +
 
 +
/*Sub level menu list items (undo style from Top level List Items)*/
 +
.ddsmoothmenu ul li ul li{
 +
text-align:left;
 +
float: none;
 +
background: url('img/bg-menu2.png');
 +
}
 +
 
 +
.ddsmoothmenu ul li ul li a{
 +
color: #fff;
 +
font-size: 12px;
 +
}
 +
.ddsmoothmenu ul li ul li  a.selected{ /*CSS class that's dynamically added to the currently active menu items' LI A element*/
 +
color: #fff;
 +
}
 +
.ddsmoothmenu ul li ul li a:link, .ddsmoothmenu ul li ul li a:visited{
 +
color: #fff;
 +
}
 +
.ddsmoothmenu ul li ul li a:hover{
 +
color: #ffc;
 +
}
 +
.ddsmoothmenu ul li ul li ul{
 +
top: 0;
 +
}
 +
 
 +
/* Sub level menu links style */
 +
.ddsmoothmenu ul li ul li a{
 +
width: 160px; /*width of sub menus*/
 +
padding: 0px 0px 0px 10px;
 +
height: 38px;
 +
line-height: 320%;
 +
border-left: 1px #555 solid;
 +
overflow: hidden;
 +
}
 +
 
 +
/* Holly Hack for IE \*/
 +
* html .ddsmoothmenu{height: 1%;} /*Holly Hack for IE7 and below*/
 +
 
 +
.copyright{
 +
width: 930px;
 +
color: #959595;
 +
background: #eee;
 +
clear: both;
 +
line-height: 190%;
 +
text-align: right;
 +
padding: 10px 20px 10px;
 +
margin: 0px auto 0px;
 +
}
 +
.copyright a{
 +
color: #bbb;
 +
text-decoration: none;
 +
}
 +
.copyright a:hover{
 +
color: #ccc;
 +
}
 +
.bar-title-whole{
 +
overflow: visible;
 +
position: relative;
 +
width: 990px;
 +
margin: auto;
 +
z-index: 10;
 +
}
 +
.bar-title{
 +
background: #999 url('http://2011.igem.org/wiki/images/e/e9/Bar-title-bg.jpg') top;
 +
border-left: 1px #8a8a8a solid;
 +
border-right: 1px #8a8a8a solid;
 +
 
 +
width: 918px;
 +
height: 122px;
 +
margin: auto;
 +
overflow: hidden;
 +
padding-left: 35px;
 +
padding-right: 35px;
 +
color: #ddd;
 +
line-height: 150%;
 +
font-size: 12px;
 +
 +
position: relative;
 +
z-index: 10;
 +
}
 +
 
 +
.bar-title h2{
 +
color: #fff;
 +
margin-top: 15px;
 +
margin-bottom: 30px !important;
 +
}
 +
.bar-title h5{
 +
color: #eee;
 +
}
 +
.bar-title-sh-left{
 +
width: 10px;
 +
height: 112px;
 +
background: url('http://2011.igem.org/wiki/images/6/69/Bar-title-sh-left.png') no-repeat;
 +
display: block-inline;
 +
position: absolute;
 +
top: 122px;
 +
left: 0px;
 +
}
 +
.bar-title-sh{
 +
width: 970px;
 +
height: 8px;
 +
background: url('http://2011.igem.org/wiki/images/3/37/Bar-title-sh.png') repeat-x;
 +
display: block-inline;
 +
position: absolute;
 +
top: 122px;
 +
left: 10px;
 +
}
 +
.bar-title-sh-right{
 +
width: 10px;
 +
height: 112px;
 +
background: url('http://2011.igem.org/wiki/images/c/c6/Bar-title-sh-right.png') no-repeat;
 +
display: block-inline;
 +
position: absolute;
 +
top: 122px;
 +
right: 0px;
 +
}
 +
#page{
 +
    width: 970px;
 +
    margin: 0px auto 0px;
 +
    overflow: hidden;
 +
    background: #f9f9f9;
 +
   
 +
}
 +
 
 +
#page .page-wrapper{
 +
margin: 15px 30px 0px 30px;
 +
width: 910px;
 +
overflow: hidden;
 +
float: left;
 +
}
 +
#page .page-wrapper-right{
 +
margin: 30px 40px 0px 25px;
 +
width: 935px;
 +
overflow: hidden;
 +
float: right;
 +
}
 +
#page .title-wrapper h1{
 +
margin-top: 0.5em;
 +
margin-bottom: 0.3em;
 +
}
 +
#page .meta-left-full{
 +
margin: 15px 0px 5px 0px;
 +
overflow: hidden;
 +
}
 +
#page .meta-left-button{
 +
margin: 5px 0px 60px 0px;
 +
overflow: hidden;
 +
}
 +
#page .w600{
 +
width: 600px;
 +
}
 +
 +
</style>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
</head>
 +
<body>
 +
<script type="text/javascript" src="http://simsekburak.com/fatihigem/ddsmoothmenu.js"></script>
 +
 
 +
<script>
 +
$(document).ready(
 +
ddsmoothmenu.init({
 +
mainmenuid: "topmenu",
 +
orientation: 'h',
 +
classname: 'ddsmoothmenu',
 +
contentsource: "markup"
 +
}));
 +
 
 +
jQuery(window).load(function() {
 +
setTimeout(function(){
 +
jQuery('#slider').nivoSlider({
 +
pauseTime:4000,
 +
animSpeed:600,
 +
captionOpacity: 0.8,
 +
pauseOnHover:true,
 +
directionNav:true,
 +
directionNavHide:true,
 +
controlNavThumbs:true,
 +
controlNavThumbsFromRel:true,
 +
});
 +
}, 1000),
 +
setTimeout(function(){
 +
/* For slider shortcode */
 +
jQuery('#slider2').nivoSlider({
 +
pauseTime:4000,
 +
animSpeed:600,
 +
captionOpacity: 0.8,
 +
pauseOnHover:true,
 +
directionNavHide:true });
 +
}, 1000);
 +
 +
});
 +
</script>
 +
 
 +
<div class="body-2">
 +
<!-- Header -->
 +
<div id="header-whole">
 +
<div id="header">
 +
<a href="http://2011.igem.org/" style="position:absolute; right:10px; top 5px; color: #343434; font-family: sans-serif; font-size: 11px; z-index: 1000;">&lArr; Back to iGem 2011 HomePage</a>
 +
<!-- Logo -->
 +
<div>
 +
<div class="logo">
 +
<a href="http://2011.igem.org/Team:Fatih_Turkey">
 +
<img width="258" src="http://2011.igem.org/wiki/images/b/b6/Fatih_turkey_logo.png">
 +
</a>
 +
</div>
 +
</div>
 +
<!-- Menu -->
 +
<div class="nav-wrapper">
 +
<div class="nav-main">
 +
<div id="topmenu" class="ddsmoothmenu">
 +
<ul id="menu-main" class="menu">
 +
<li>
 +
<a href="http://2011.igem.org/Team:Fatih_Turkey">Home</a>
 +
</li>
 +
<li>
 +
<a href="http://2011.igem.org/Team:Fatih_Turkey/Project">Project<span>Rainbow Graveyard</span></a>
 +
<ul>
 +
<li><a href="http://2011.igem.org/Team:Fatih_Turkey/Project">Overall Project</a></li>
 +
<li><a href="http://2011.igem.org/Team:Fatih_Turkey/LALF">LALF</a></li>
 +
<li><a href="http://2011.igem.org/Team:Fatih_Turkey/Reflectin">Reflectin</a></li>
 +
<li><a href="http://2011.igem.org/Team:Fatih_Turkey/Biofilm">Biofilm</a></li>
 +
<li><a href="http://2011.igem.org/Team:Fatih_Turkey/Experiments">Experiments</a></li>
 +
<li><a href="http://2011.igem.org/Team:Fatih_Turkey/Results">Results</a></li>
 +
<li><a href="http://2011.igem.org/Team:Fatih_Turkey/Future_Plan">Future Plan</a></li>
 +
</ul>
 +
</li>
 +
<li>
 +
<a href="http://2011.igem.org/Team:Fatih_Turkey/Biobricks">Biobricks</a>
 +
<ul>
 +
<li><a href="http://2011.igem.org/Team:Fatih_Turkey/Parts">Parts</a></li>
 +
<li><a href="http://2011.igem.org/Team:Fatih_Turkey/Devices">Devices</a></li>
 +
<li><a href="http://2011.igem.org/Team:Fatih_Turkey/Modelling">Modelling</a></li>
 +
</ul>
 +
</li>
 +
<li><a href="http://2011.igem.org/Team:Fatih_Turkey/Safety">Safety</a></li>
 +
<li>
 +
<a href="http://2011.igem.org/Team:Fatih_Turkey/Human_Practice">Human Practice</a>
 +
<ul>
 +
<li><a href="http://2011.igem.org/Team:Fatih_Turkey/Sporocide">Sporocide</a></li>
 +
<li><a href="http://2011.igem.org/Team:Fatih_Turkey/iGEM_for_7_to_77">iGEM for 7 to 77</a></li>
 +
<li><a href="http://2011.igem.org/Team:Fatih_Turkey/game">Game</a></li>
 +
<li><a href="http://2011.igem.org/Team:Fatih_Turkey/canvas_times">Canvas Times</a></li>
 +
</ul>
 +
</li>
 +
<li>
 +
<a href="http://2011.igem.org/Team:Fatih_Turkey/Lab_Garage">Lab Garage</a>
 +
<ul>
 +
<li><a href="http://2011.igem.org/Team:Fatih_Turkey/Notebook">Notebook</a></li>
 +
<li><a href="http://2011.igem.org/Team:Fatih_Turkey/Procedures">Procedures</a></li>
 +
</ul>
 +
</li>
 +
</ul>
 +
</div>
 +
</div>
 +
</div>
 +
</div>
 +
</div>
 +
<!-- End Header -->
 +
<div class="bar-title-whole">
 +
  <div class="bar-title">
 +
      <h2 style="font-family: Verdana, Arial, SunSans-Regular, sans-serif;">Project</h2>
 +
      <h5 style="font-family: Verdana, Arial, SunSans-Regular, sans-serif;">LALF (Anti-LPS)</h5>
 +
    </div>
 +
  <div class="bar-title-sh-left"></div>
 +
  <div class="bar-title-sh"></div>
 +
  <div class="bar-title-sh-right"></div>
 +
        </div>
 +
</div>
 +
<div id="container">
 +
<div id="page">
 +
<div class="page-wrapper">
 +
<!-- post container -->
 +
<div>
 +
<div class="meta-left-full">
 +
  <p style="font-family: Verdana, Arial, SunSans-Regular, sans-serif;font-size:12px;">Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or endotoxin, is the major mediator of septic shock, a serious complication of Gram-negative bacterial infections in humans. Molecules that bind LPS and neutralize its biological effects or enhance its clearance could have important clinical applications. Limulus anti-LPS factor (LALF) binds LPS tightly, and, in animal models, reduces mortality when administered before or after LPS challenge or bacterial infection. The wedge-shaped molecule has a striking charge distribution and amphipathicity that suggest how it can insert into membranes. The binding site for LPS probably involves an extended amphipathic loop, and it has been proposed that two mammalian LPS-binding proteins will have a similar loop. The amphipathic loop structure may be used in the design of molecules with therapeutic properties against septic shock.</p>
 +
 
 +
<p style="font-family: Verdana, Arial, SunSans-Regular, sans-serif;font-size:12px;">Horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus and Tachypleus tridentatus) are  ancient arachnids that possess a primitive circulatory system, the hemolymph, containing only one kind of cell, the hemocyte. Exposure of hemocytes to bacterial endotoxins [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] results in the activation of an intracellular coagulation cascade (Iwanaga et al., 1986), a defense against microbial invasion. The system consists of several proteins, including one that may inhibit the cascade, called anti-LPS factor(Morita et al., 1985). Limulus anti-LPS factor (LALF) is a small (101 amino acids), basic protein (Aketagawa et al., 1986; Muta et al., 1987), which binds and neutralizes LPS (Wainwright et al., 1990) and has a strong anti-bacterial effect on the growth of Gram-negative R-type bacteria (Morita et al., 1985)(22). Our interest in determining the crystal structure of LALF arose from its potential in designing molecules that would have therapeutic properties in humans. It has been proposed that LALF has sequence similarity with ct-lactalbumin, a protein that binds LPS in vitro (Aketagawa et al., 1986).</p>
 +
<img src="http://2011.igem.org/wiki/images/b/b5/Lalf.png"/>
 +
<p style="font-family: Verdana, Arial, SunSans-Regular, sans-serif;font-size:12px;">LALF recognizes the lipid A portion of individual soluble LPS molecules (Warren et al., 1992), which are obtained below the critical micellar concentration. The simplest molecules that bind lipid A with high affinity are the polymyxin family of antibiotics; these are positively charged amphipathic cyclic oligopeptides linked to a single fatty acid (Morrison and Jacobs, 1976).</p>
 +
<img src="http://2011.igem.org/wiki/images/1/17/Lalf2.png"/>
 +
<small>Fig3, Fig4 (A. Hoess, S. Watson, G.R.Siber and R.Liddington.Crystal structure of an endotoxin-neutralizing protein from the horseshoe crab, Limulus anti-LPS factor, at 1.5 A resolution.)</small>
 +
<img src="http://2011.igem.org/wiki/images/1/16/Lalf3.png"/>
 +
<small>Freeze fracture electron micrographs of LPS. Alone (A), in the presence of LALF supernatant (B) and precipitation (C).( Mechanism of interaction of optimized Limulus-derived cyclic peptides with endotoxins: thermodynamic, biophysical and microbiological analysis
 +
Jorg ANDR¨A, Jorg HOWE, Patrick GARIDEL, Manfred R OSSLE, Walter RICHTER§, Jos´e LEIVA-LE ´ON_, Ignacio</small>
 +
</div>
 +
    </div>
 +
      </div>
 +
</div>
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<div class="footer-sh-wrapper">
 +
<div class="footer-sh-left"></div>
 +
<div class="footer-sh"></div>
 +
<div class="footer-sh-right"></div>
 +
</div>
 +
<div id="footer">
 +
<style>
 +
#footer img:hover{
 +
opacity:0.6;
 +
}
 +
</style>
 +
<div>
 +
<h3 style="color:#BBB;">Sponsors</h3>
 +
<img src="http://2011.igem.org/wiki/images/6/69/Tubitak.png"/>
 +
<a href="http://www.sentegen.com">
 +
<img src="http://2011.igem.org/wiki/images/d/d8/Sentegen.jpg"/></a>
 +
</div>
 +
</div>
 +
<div class="copyright-open">
 +
</div>
 +
<div class="copyright">
 +
2011 © Fatih Medical School
 +
</div>
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
 
 +
</body>
 +
</html>

Revision as of 18:14, 20 September 2011

deneme baslik

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or endotoxin, is the major mediator of septic shock, a serious complication of Gram-negative bacterial infections in humans. Molecules that bind LPS and neutralize its biological effects or enhance its clearance could have important clinical applications. Limulus anti-LPS factor (LALF) binds LPS tightly, and, in animal models, reduces mortality when administered before or after LPS challenge or bacterial infection. The wedge-shaped molecule has a striking charge distribution and amphipathicity that suggest how it can insert into membranes. The binding site for LPS probably involves an extended amphipathic loop, and it has been proposed that two mammalian LPS-binding proteins will have a similar loop. The amphipathic loop structure may be used in the design of molecules with therapeutic properties against septic shock.

Horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus and Tachypleus tridentatus) are ancient arachnids that possess a primitive circulatory system, the hemolymph, containing only one kind of cell, the hemocyte. Exposure of hemocytes to bacterial endotoxins [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] results in the activation of an intracellular coagulation cascade (Iwanaga et al., 1986), a defense against microbial invasion. The system consists of several proteins, including one that may inhibit the cascade, called anti-LPS factor(Morita et al., 1985). Limulus anti-LPS factor (LALF) is a small (101 amino acids), basic protein (Aketagawa et al., 1986; Muta et al., 1987), which binds and neutralizes LPS (Wainwright et al., 1990) and has a strong anti-bacterial effect on the growth of Gram-negative R-type bacteria (Morita et al., 1985)(22). Our interest in determining the crystal structure of LALF arose from its potential in designing molecules that would have therapeutic properties in humans. It has been proposed that LALF has sequence similarity with ct-lactalbumin, a protein that binds LPS in vitro (Aketagawa et al., 1986).

LALF recognizes the lipid A portion of individual soluble LPS molecules (Warren et al., 1992), which are obtained below the critical micellar concentration. The simplest molecules that bind lipid A with high affinity are the polymyxin family of antibiotics; these are positively charged amphipathic cyclic oligopeptides linked to a single fatty acid (Morrison and Jacobs, 1976).

Fig3, Fig4 (A. Hoess, S. Watson, G.R.Siber and R.Liddington.Crystal structure of an endotoxin-neutralizing protein from the horseshoe crab, Limulus anti-LPS factor, at 1.5 A resolution.) Freeze fracture electron micrographs of LPS. Alone (A), in the presence of LALF supernatant (B) and precipitation (C).( Mechanism of interaction of optimized Limulus-derived cyclic peptides with endotoxins: thermodynamic, biophysical and microbiological analysis Jorg ANDR¨A, Jorg HOWE, Patrick GARIDEL, Manfred R OSSLE, Walter RICHTER§, Jos´e LEIVA-LE ´ON_, Ignacio